Firstly, thanks for the overwhelming comments and feedback. Genuinely really appreciated. I am pleased 500+ of you find it useful.submitted by getmrmarket to Forex [link] [comments]
If you didn't read the first post you can do so here: risk management part I. You'll need to do so in order to make sense of the topic.
As ever please comment/reply below with questions or feedback and I'll do my best to get back to you.
Letting stops breatheWe talked earlier about giving a position enough room to breathe so it is not stopped out in day-to-day noise.
Let’s consider the chart below and imagine you had a trailing stop. It would be super painful to miss out on the wider move just because you left a stop that was too tight.
Imagine being long and stopped out on a meaningless retracement ... ouch!
One simple technique is simply to look at your chosen chart - let’s say daily bars. And then look at previous trends and use the measuring tool. Those generally look something like this and then you just click and drag to measure.
For example if we wanted to bet on a downtrend on the chart above we might look at the biggest retracement on the previous uptrend. That max drawdown was about 100 pips or just under 1%. So you’d want your stop to be able to withstand at least that.
If market conditions have changed - for example if CVIX has risen - and daily ranges are now higher you should incorporate that. If you know a big event is coming up you might think about that, too. The human brain is a remarkable tool and the power of the eye-ball method is not to be dismissed. This is how most discretionary traders do it.
There are also more analytical approaches.
Some look at the Average True Range (ATR). This attempts to capture the volatility of a pair, typically averaged over a number of sessions. It looks at three separate measures and takes the largest reading. Think of this as a moving average of how much a pair moves.
For example, below shows the daily move in EURUSD was around 60 pips before spiking to 140 pips in March. Conditions were clearly far more volatile in March. Accordingly, you would need to leave your stop further away in March and take a correspondingly smaller position size.
ATR is available on pretty much all charting systems
Professional traders tend to use standard deviation as a measure of volatility instead of ATR. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Averages are useful but can be misleading when regimes switch (see above chart).
Once you have chosen a measure of volatility, stop distance can then be back-tested and optimised. For example does 2x ATR work best or 5x ATR for a given style and time horizon?
Discretionary traders may still eye-ball the ATR or standard deviation to get a feeling for how it has changed over time and what ‘normal’ feels like for a chosen study period - daily, weekly, monthly etc.
Reasons to change a stopAs a general rule you should be disciplined and not change your stops. Remember - losers average losers. This is really hard at first and we’re going to look at that in more detail later.
There are some good reasons to modify stops but they are rare.
One reason is if another risk management process demands you stop trading and close positions. We’ll look at this later. In that case just close out your positions at market and take the loss/gains as they are.
Another is event risk. If you have some big upcoming data like Non Farm Payrolls that you know can move the market +/- 150 pips and you have no edge going into the release then many traders will take off or scale down their positions. They’ll go back into the positions when the data is out and the market has quietened down after fifteen minutes or so. This is a matter of some debate - many traders consider it a coin toss and argue you win some and lose some and it all averages out.
Trailing stops can also be used to ‘lock in’ profits. We looked at those before. As the trade moves in your favour (say up if you are long) the stop loss ratchets with it. This means you may well end up ‘stopping out’ at a profit - as per the below example.
The mighty trailing stop loss order
It is perfectly reasonable to have your stop loss move in the direction of PNL. This is not exposing you to more risk than you originally were comfortable with. It is taking less and less risk as the trade moves in your favour. Trend-followers in particular love trailing stops.
One final question traders ask is what they should do if they get stopped out but still like the trade. Should they try the same trade again a day later for the same reasons? Nope. Look for a different trade rather than getting emotionally wed to the original idea.
Let’s say a particular stock looked cheap based on valuation metrics yesterday, you bought, it went down and you got stopped out. Well, it is going to look even better on those same metrics today. Maybe the market just doesn’t respect value at the moment and is driven by momentum. Wait it out.
Otherwise, why even have a stop in the first place?
Entering and exiting winning positionsTake profits are the opposite of stop losses. They are also resting orders, left with the broker, to automatically close your position if it reaches a certain price.
Imagine I’m long EURUSD at 1.1250. If it hits a previous high of 1.1400 (150 pips higher) I will leave a sell order to take profit and close the position.
The rookie mistake on take profits is to take profit too early. One should start from the assumption that you will win on no more than half of your trades. Therefore you will need to ensure that you win more on the ones that work than you lose on those that don’t.
Sad to say but incredibly common: retail traders often take profits way too early
This is going to be the exact opposite of what your emotions want you to do. We are going to look at that in the Psychology of Trading chapter.
Remember: let winners run. Just like stops you need to know in advance the level where you will close out at a profit. Then let the trade happen. Don’t override yourself and let emotions force you to take a small profit. A classic mistake to avoid.
The trader puts on a trade and it almost stops out before rebounding. As soon as it is slightly in the money they spook and cut out, instead of letting it run to their original take profit. Do not do this.
Entering positions with limit ordersThat covers exiting a position but how about getting into one?
Take profits can also be left speculatively to enter a position. Sometimes referred to as “bids” (buy orders) or “offers” (sell orders). Imagine the price is 1.1250 and the recent low is 1.1205.
You might wish to leave a bid around 1.2010 to enter a long position, if the market reaches that price. This way you don’t need to sit at the computer and wait.
Again, typically traders will use tech analysis to identify attractive levels. Again - other traders will cluster with your orders. Just like the stop loss we need to bake that in.
So this time if we know everyone is going to buy around the recent low of 1.1205 we might leave the take profit bit a little bit above there at 1.1210 to ensure it gets done. Sure it costs 5 more pips but how mad would you be if the low was 1.1207 and then it rallied a hundred points and you didn’t have the trade on?!
There are two more methods that traders often use for entering a position.
Scaling in is one such technique. Let’s imagine that you think we are in a long-term bulltrend for AUDUSD but experiencing a brief retracement. You want to take a total position of 500,000 AUD and don’t have a strong view on the current price action.
You might therefore leave a series of five bids of 100,000. As the price moves lower each one gets hit. The nice thing about scaling in is it reduces pressure on you to pick the perfect level. Of course the risk is that not all your orders get hit before the price moves higher and you have to trade at-market.
Pyramiding is the second technique. Pyramiding is for take profits what a trailing stop loss is to regular stops. It is especially common for momentum traders.
Pyramiding into a position means buying more as it goes in your favour
Again let’s imagine we’re bullish AUDUSD and want to take a position of 500,000 AUD.
Here we add 100,000 when our first signal is reached. Then we add subsequent clips of 100,000 when the trade moves in our favour. We are waiting for confirmation that the move is correct.
Obviously this is quite nice as we humans love trading when it goes in our direction. However, the drawback is obvious: we haven’t had the full amount of risk on from the start of the trend.
You can see the attractions and drawbacks of both approaches. It is best to experiment and choose techniques that work for your own personal psychology as these will be the easiest for you to stick with and build a disciplined process around.
Risk:reward and win ratiosBe extremely skeptical of people who claim to win on 80% of trades. Most traders will win on roughly 50% of trades and lose on 50% of trades. This is why risk management is so important!
Once you start keeping a trading journal you’ll be able to see how the win/loss ratio looks for you. Until then, assume you’re typical and that every other trade will lose money.
If that is the case then you need to be sure you make more on the wins than you lose on the losses. You can see the effect of this below.
A combination of win % and risk:reward ratio determine if you are profitable
A typical rule of thumb is that a ratio of 1:3 works well for most traders.
That is, if you are prepared to risk 100 pips on your stop you should be setting a take profit at a level that would return you 300 pips.
One needn’t be religious about these numbers - 11 pips and 28 pips would be perfectly fine - but they are a guideline.
Again - you should still use technical analysis to find meaningful chart levels for both the stop and take profit. Don’t just blindly take your stop distance and do 3x the pips on the other side as your take profit. Use the ratio to set approximate targets and then look for a relevant resistance or support level in that kind of region.
Risk-adjusted returnsNot all returns are equal. Suppose you are examining the track record of two traders. Now, both have produced a return of 14% over the year. Not bad!
The first trader, however, made hundreds of small bets throughout the year and his cumulative PNL looked like the left image below.
The second trader made just one bet — he sold CADJPY at the start of the year — and his PNL looked like the right image below with lots of large drawdowns and volatility.
Would you rather have the first trading record or the second?
If you were investing money and betting on who would do well next year which would you choose? Of course all sensible people would choose the first trader. Yet if you look only at returns one cannot distinguish between the two. Both are up 14% at that point in time. This is where the Sharpe ratio helps .
A high Sharpe ratio indicates that a portfolio has better risk-adjusted performance. One cannot sensibly compare returns without considering the risk taken to earn that return.
If I can earn 80% of the return of another investor at only 50% of the risk then a rational investor should simply leverage me at 2x and enjoy 160% of the return at the same level of risk.
This is very important in the context of Execution Advisor algorithms (EAs) that are popular in the retail community. You must evaluate historic performance by its risk-adjusted return — not just the nominal return. Incidentally look at the Sharpe ratio of ones that have been live for a year or more ...
Otherwise an EA developer could produce two EAs: the first simply buys at 1000:1 leverage on January 1st ; and the second sells in the same manner. At the end of the year, one of them will be discarded and the other will look incredible. Its risk-adjusted return, however, would be abysmal and the odds of repeated success are similarly poor.
Sharpe ratioThe Sharpe ratio works like this:
You don’t really need to know how to calculate Sharpe ratios. Good trading software will do this for you. It will either be available in the system by default or you can add a plug-in.
VARVAR is another useful measure to help with drawdowns. It stands for Value at Risk. Normally people will use 99% VAR (conservative) or 95% VAR (aggressive). Let’s say you’re long EURUSD and using 95% VAR. The system will look at the historic movement of EURUSD. It might spit out a number of -1.2%.
A 5% VAR of -1.2% tells you you should expect to lose 1.2% on 5% of days, whilst 95% of days should be better than that
This means it is expected that on 5 days out of 100 (hence the 95%) the portfolio will lose 1.2% or more. This can help you manage your capital by taking appropriately sized positions. Typically you would look at VAR across your portfolio of trades rather than trade by trade.
Sharpe ratios and VAR don’t give you the whole picture, though. Legendary fund manager, Howard Marks of Oaktree, notes that, while tools like VAR and Sharpe ratios are helpful and absolutely necessary, the best investors will also overlay their own judgment.
Investors can calculate risk metrics like VaR and Sharpe ratios (we use them at Oaktree; they’re the best tools we have), but they shouldn’t put too much faith in them. The bottom line for me is that risk management should be the responsibility of every participant in the investment process, applying experience, judgment and knowledge of the underlying investments.Howard Marks of Oaktree Capital
What he’s saying is don’t misplace your common sense. Do use these tools as they are helpful. However, you cannot fully rely on them. Both assume a normal distribution of returns. Whereas in real life you get “black swans” - events that should supposedly happen only once every thousand years but which actually seem to happen fairly often.
These outlier events are often referred to as “tail risk”. Don’t make the mistake of saying “well, the model said…” - overlay what the model is telling you with your own common sense and good judgment.
Coming up in part IIIAvailable here
Squeezes and other risks
Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits
Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
|https://jkonfx.com/||Technical & fundamental news on currencies. I would advise newer traders not to trade solely on external opinions because that won't cement your own methodology or reasons for trading. Excellent website for if you want an overview of the markets and daily reports. Also includes a trading journal and a lot of media attention.|
|http://www.stocktradingtogo.com/||A good blog for new traders/ investors. Lot of ‘top 10 lists’ to flick through.|
|http://www.tradingheroes.com/||This is absolutely amazing! I can't put a value on this! It's one of the best gems of the internet. Podcasts interviewing successful traders, some are notable such as 50pips, Walter Peters & Chris Kapre.|
|http://www.nobrainertrades.com/||Found this when doing the podcast link below, it's actually really good high quality stuff. Blog based with plenty of educational material.|
|http://www.chatwithtraders.com||A weekly podcast that interviews successful traders. Thank you gumballfrank for this.|
|http://ftp.traderkingdom.com/||Not had much of a chance to check this out, but first impression are nice!|
|http://www.forexlive.com||Heavily oriented towards fundamentals. Good news portal submitted by WinterTires thanks!|
|http://www.tradeciety.com/||Heavily visually oriented perfect for beginners! Lots of infographics and info. Submitted by gumballfrank|
|ONLINE SCHOOLS & LEARNING PORTALS||N/A -------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|http://www.tradimo.com||A superb website dedicated to training people to become better investors traders for free.|
|http://www.babypips.com||One of the best free online schools which tracks your progress and teaches you heaps on information. The forum is the gem, where many people keep trade journals and put up their strategies. Don't copy them but borrowing concepts and ideas is good.|
|http://www.forexpeacearmy.com/forex-forum/forex-military-school-complete-forex-education-pro-banke||Unbelievably thorough! Education on forex trading, literally everything is covered.|
|http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school||Very wide ranging resource that focuses mainly on technical analysis.|
|http://www.investopedia.com||This should be a given, but seriously – this place is the Wikipedia of trading/ investing.|
|http://www.swing-trade-stocks.com/swing-trading-basics.html||Actually a really good learning resource that mentions psychology and momentum among other things.|
|http://thepatternsite.com/Psychology.html||Really good information on trading psychology – something that often goes unnoticed with beginners.|
|http://www.finvids.com/||Cool little website with videos on candle patterns and chart patterns.|
|http://www.fxacademy.com/||Appears to be a free trading academy. Not tried it personally, but it looks really good. With plenty of videos for visual learners.|
|ARTICLES OF INTEREST||N/A -----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|http://www.stocktradingtogo.com/2009/05/14/trading-psychology-stages-investor-emotions/||An article on the ’14 stages of investor emotions’ knowing who you are and what is happening to you can lead you to make more calculated decisions.|
|http://fourhourworkweek.com/2014/10/15/money-master-the-game/||Tim Ferris, author of The 4 Hour Work Week interviews Tony Robbins to find out the success behind the worlds best investors. Talking about morning routines, peak performance & mastering money!|
|http://www.tradeciety.com/category/trading-blog/||Best trading & investing blogs and articles as picked by tradeciety.com|
|http://www.forextradetracker.com/blog/understanding-forex-jargon-a-glossary-for-beginners||Forex jargon glossary for beginners. Submitted by gumballfrank|
|http://www.forexpeacearmy.com/||Excellent learning resource, main focus is to help avoid people getting scammed.|
|http://www.trade2win.com/boards/||Massive forum for beginners to talk to more experienced traders – very active community.|
|http://www.forexfactory.com/forum.php||Much like trade2win but more focused towards forex.|
|http://forums.babypips.com/||Another forum dedicated to forex traders. You'll find people keeping good strategies here, list them via most views first to find the real gems.|
|MISCELLANEOUS RESOURCES||N/A --------------------------------------------------------------------|
|http://www.forex-warez.com/Free%20Download/||Every book you could ever want on trading, investing, market psychology, strategies etc.|
|http://www.forextradetracker.com/||SUPER IMPORTANT This website is paramount to your success, still in development but will provide users with an easy way to document trades. Success is determined by your willingness to follow through with the boring bits so keep this one in your bookmarks.|
|http://www.hotcandlestick.com/candlestick-pattern-flashcard-game.html||Super useful Flashcard game that helps you to remember important candlestick patterns.|
|http://www.hotcandlestick.com/forex_charts.htm||Important candlestick patterns that have appeared on the major currency pairs. Good for a quick overview.|
|http://www.freeonlinetradingeducation.com/chart-school.html||Website offering visual illustration & practical applications of popular candlestick patterns.|
|http://www.hotcandlestick.com/candles.htm||Glossary of candlestick patterns.|
|http://www.incrediblecharts.com/topic/Technical_Analysis||Another resource for learning technical analysis. Not particularly thorough but useful for basic concepts.|
|http://www.forexschoolonline.com/||Market overviews and trading opportunity videos provided, along with educational videos and the like.|
|http://www.tradersdna.com/education/||Another trading education site focusing more on forex.|
|YOUTUBE CHANNELS||N/A ------------------------------------------------------|
|https://www.youtube.com/useJarrattDavisForex||Jarratt Davis - plenty of educational videos to help you get your bearings! *Submitted by masudhossain|
|https://www.youtube.com/useOneStepRemoved||Shaun Overton interviews many forex traders to find out why and how they work.|
|TTL001 – Pro Trader Interview: Haji Warithu||What he attributes his success to, what amount of money you need to start and how to choose an Islamic broker among other stuff.|
|TTL002 – Full-Time Trader Interview: Jessica Peletier, AKA Rogue Traderette||How she lets her partner know there are losses as well as wins. Where she learnt to trade, why CFDs are amazing etc.|
|TTL003 - Interview with Pro Trader and mentor Chris Lori.||His thoughts on backtesting, why being athletic counts, his development and timeline as a trader, how his trading results exploded and what to do if you want to manage funds.|
|TTL004 – Interview With Pro Trader Adam Jowett||The common trait he sees in successful traders, how long it took him to become profitable, the most important trade that made him successful, his favourite books and why they both like Jessica Peletier.|
|TTL005 Doesn't seem to exist.||I'm not joking.|
|TTL006 – How Colin Jessup Went From Warehouse Worker To Professional Forex Trader And Soon-To-Be Fund Manager||A warehouse worker went through his trials and tribulations to be given the offer of managing an $80 million fund. How he started with $800 and no clue what to do, 2 biggest mistakes he sees traders making, how he continues to improve and what has happened to his lifestyle since becoming a full-time trader.|
|TTL007 – The Inspiring Story Of How Psychologist Walter Peters Quit His Dream Job To Trade Forex Naked For A Living (not what you think)||How Walter Peters quit his job to trade forex for a living. This guy trades naked using No indicators|
|TTL008 – How Lynette Allen Combines Minimalism, Line Charts And Only One Currency Pair To Trade For A Living||How Timothy Sykes inspired her, what minimalism is all about and how it's spread to every facet of her life, what her single pair to trade is, what the 2 best traits for successful traders are and plenty more!|
|TTL009 – How Brian McAboy Leveraged His Engineering Background To Trade And Coach For A Living||What plastic bottles have to do with trading, how much money you need to have to be properly funded and go full-time, how much work you have to do and how long it'll take to get there, 2 best traits to have and loads loads more!|
|TTL010 – How Rafael Veron Taught His Wife To Trade Better Than Fund Managers||Can you actually trade from a beach? The use of hypnosis to make him a better trader, the method that works with his psychology, how much you need to get started, how long it took him to become profitable and what he would do differently if he had to start over! plus loads more!|
|TTL011 – Why (and how) 50 Pips Trades Forex For A Living||What does trading have to do with golf? Things you could learn from his students and his opinion on black box systems and fibo retracements.|
|TTL012 – How A Millionaire’s Intuition Transformed Chris Capre From Yoga Instructor To Professional Forex Trader||Personal Favorite I love this guy because he's true and noble. He is philanthropic, offers trading courses that are cheap and really knows what he's talking about. He explains how a 3 second glance can stop you 2nd guessing yourself, how much he made with $3000 in 6 months and plenty more!|
|TTL013 – Steve From No Brainer Trades And The Only Thing You Need To Remember When Trading||What the biggest killer of our accounts is, the cliches that are true, where to find the hidden information amongst many other things.|
|TTL014 – How Casey Stubbs Went From Computer Geek To Forex Trader||His opinion on EAs, why he trades the way he does and the biggest mistakes to avoid!|
|TTL015 – Trading For A Living Risking Only 8 To 12 Pips Per Trade: Kim Krompass||How she was profitable from the start, her strongest trait, her strong opinion on backtesting and demo accounts, how she lost her fortune and info on her 2 most succesful students.|
|TTL016 – How Custom Programming Can Help Almost Any Trader With Shaun Overton||How to know when you're in the forex dream, lots of info on automated systems and his experience with AI.|
|TTL017 – Bank Dealer Turned Independent Trader Walter Vannelli Shares His Experience||His unique style of meditation, why banks win and how you can fight back, his daily routine and how much you needed to trade in the 80's.|
|TTL018 – How Reynaldo Soriano Makes A Living Trading 1 Hour A Day||Why he holds trading contests, why forex is the best market to learn in, how institutions work and why he stopped day trading.|
|How A South Central Public School Teacher Became A Successful Forex Trader With Greg McLeod||How he's turned some traders around in 30 minutes, why you never trade on a monday, the courses he bought, why he teaches outside the classroom and why he sent his kids to learn chinese.|
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